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An atom is the fundamental unit of chemistry. It contains a positively charged core (the atomic nucleus) which holds protons and neutrons, and which preserves numerous electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus. The atom is also the smallest entity that can be predicted to retain the chemical properties of the element, for example electro negativity, preferred oxidation states, ionization potential, coordination number, and preferred types of bonds to form (e.g., metallic, ionic, covalent).
The notion of chemical element is associated to that of chemical substance. A chemical element is exclusively a substance which is composed of a single type of atom. A chemical element is described by a particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. This number is well-known as the atomic number of the element. For instance, all atoms through 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon and each and every atom with 92 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the element uranium.
A compound is a substance with a specific ratio of atoms of specific chemical elements which establishes its composition and a particular organization which establishes chemical properties.
A chemical substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties. Severely speaking, mixtures of compounds, elements or compounds and elements or compounds are not chemical substances, but it may be called a chemical. Most of the substances we come across in our daily life are some sort of mixture
A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances. On the other hand, this definition only works well for substances that are collected of molecules, which is not true of many substances.
Ions and salts
An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons. Positively charged cations (e.g. sodium cation Na+) and negatively charged anions (e.g. chloride Cl−) can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts (e.g. sodium chloride NaCl). Ions in the gaseous phase are often known as plasma.
Acidity and basicity
A substance can frequently be categorized as an acid or a base. There are quite a few different theories which clarify acid-base behavior. The easiest is Arrhenius theory, which proves than an acid is a substance that produces hydronium ions when it is dissolved in water and a base is one that creates hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
Besides the precise chemical properties that differentiate many chemical classifications chemicals can exist in a number of phases. Essentially, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phases cataloging; though, some more exotic phases are mismatched with convinced chemical properties.
It is a concept linked to the ability of atoms of a variety of substances to lose or gain electrons. Substances that have the capacity to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative and are identified as oxidizing agents, oxidants or oxidizers. An oxidant eliminates electrons from another substance.
Electron atomic and molecular orbitals
Atoms attaching together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded by one another. A chemical bond may be envisioned as the multiple balance among the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating concerning them.
All through chemical reactions, bonds among atoms break and form effecting in different substances with dissimilar properties. In a blast furnace, a compound, iron oxide, reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron, one of the chemical elements and carbon dioxide. When a chemical substance is changed as a result of its interaction with sssone more or energy, a chemical reaction is supposed to have occurred.
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