Nucleic acids carry out two significant functions:
1. Replication is the assets of biomolecules to synthesis exact copy of it. DNA has this exclusive property of duplicating itself. The inherent information for the cell is coded in the form of the series of bases (A) adenine, (T) thymine (G) guanine and (C) cytosine in the DNA molecules. Throughout division of cell, DNA molecules replicate and produce correct copies of them. Every daughter cell has DNA molecules identical to that of the parent cell. Consistent with a prominent theory of DNA replication, the two strands of DNA helix unwind and every strand acts as a template of pattern for the synthesis of a fresh strand in the cell environment. The specificity of base pairing ensures the exact duplication of series of bases in the reproduced strand of (DNA).
2. DNA molecules in the cell nucleus grasp the code for the protein synthesis. The genetic aspect is coded in DNA in the form of exact sequence of bases. The synthesis of an exact protein engages the following two steps:
Transcription engages copying of series of bases from the DNA strand on the RNA molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). The bases of the mRNA are balancing to those of the DNA strand. Messenger RNA holds only four bases (A) adenine, (G) guanine, (C) cytosine and (U) uracil. DNA molecules hold the four as (A) adenine, (G) guanine, (C) cytosine and (T) thymine.
Subsequent to transcription mRNA goes from the nucleus of the cell to a ribosome in the cytoplasm where it places as template for the protein synthesis.
The genetic code contains four noteworthy characteristics:
• It is universal.
• The third base of the codon is less particular. The first two bases of the codon are most significant.
• It is degenerate. It means that more than one codons can take action as a code for an amino acid.
• It is commaless.
Synthesis of proteins in the body happens at very fast rate. Only minutes following the radioactive amino acids are injected into the animals, radioactive proteins can be originated.
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