Monday, September 9, 2013

Explanation of par magnetism

The individual atoms or molecules or ions of a paramagnetic material possess some permanent magnetic dipole moment of their own. However, due to ceaseless random thermal motion of the atoms the dipoles are randomly oriented and no net magnetization is seen a paramagnetic material does not behave as a magnet in the absence of an external magnetic field.

When an external magnetic field is applied at low temperatures, the individual atomic dipole moments are made to align along the field. That is why the specimen gets magnetized weakly along the field. This is par magnetism.

When we raise the temperature of paramagnetic material the atomic dipoles acquire some kinetic energy. They try to disorient. That is why magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic materials decreases with rise in temperature.

Some examples of paramagnetic materials are aluminum sodium calcium platinum chromium manganese oxygen at STP and copper chloride etc. 

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